Building a full-stack monorepo engineering system
February 5th, 2020in warm-and-fuzzy
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Monorepo or bust

Everything for WarmAndFuzzy lives in a single monorepo, including a Serverless/AWS-based backend and API, React and ReactNative-based frontends, and C++ device firmware. (There’s one tiny exception we’ll discuss later.)
The ability to keep all changes in a single repo and not have to worry about coordinating commits and PRs across multiple repos, build definitions, etc. has been invaluable, considering that most of my PRs flow across package lines.
With technologies like React/ReactNative/Serverless in a streamlined monorepo, my engineering experience has been better than in any other environment I’ve worked in before, particularly when it comes to the speed of the inner loop (the time from saving in the editor to seeing the change built and running, generally a second or two) and the ease of cross-component updates.
There’s a lot to complain about in the JavaScript-based development ecosystem but - given sufficient investment - the engineering system and experience is pretty rad.

Streamline all the things

Life gets a lot easier when things are consistent.
While it’s wonderful that so many technologies (React, Serverless, …) have starter projects to get you off the ground, regrettably none of them are consistent with one another. It makes because, truly, why would or should they be - there are so many choices out there and many of them are pretty good (except plain JavaScript without TypeScript or Flow - never do that), but it does mean that a lot of gardening needs to take place.
The following is what I found useful:
  • All code is managed through as an npm (or rather package.json) package, regardless of whether it’s actually JavaScript or not (so even the C++ firmware code).
  • All code uses its package’s npm lifecycle1 scripts to build and deploy.
  • All packages are managed through lerna.
    • Packages depend on each other as relative/local packages (rehydrated via lerna bootstrap) so there’s no package registry to maintain.
  • The lifecycle scripts in all packages are named consistently.
  • All packages share a top-level tsconfig.common.json and technology-specific adjustments per package are kept to a minimum.
  • All packages share a top-level .eslintrc.js and there are no package-specific adjustments.
  • prettier and various eslint rules are used for all formatting and there are no package-specific adjustments.
    • There’s a format-fixes meta-package whose job it is to run prettier on everything above the packages directory, e.g. the top-level README.md, CircleCI files, etc.
  • All paths have consistent naming so having a single top-level .gitignore is a lot easier to maintain.
    • generated for generated files that are used as build inputs,
    • build for build outputs, etc.
I’m not using husky pre-commit hooks in this repo (it just feels a tad slow on commits) though I do use them in other projects; linting at least is enforced in CI. Using husky would be better on paper but I hate having to make everything lint perfectly for each commit so it would really just cause me to make fewer commits with more steps in them, and that’s not good for anyone.
Managing lerna-based packages can be a bit extra when it comes to updating packages and re-linking them. When in doubt, run lerna bootstrap. When still in doubt, do what everyone else in the JavaScript yoloverse does and run lerna clean to nuke node_modules. What a waste. More helpful notes to myself are in my README.md.

Build all the things

I chose circleci.com as my cloud-hosted CI system over Travis at a time when rumor had it that Travis was maybe getting a bit abandoned. It’s worked out fine — it’s amazing what you get to do on a free plan.

A brief interlude to bitch about YAML

CircleCI’s setup is defined in YAML. If you want a data definition language that doesn’t allow for (or requires) code execution (e.g. JavaScript), YAML is a better choice than JSON because at least you get to write comments. (If you were going to suggest XML, kindly don’t.)
That said, CircleCI’s YAML parsing is a bit whack with its requirements on indentation. For example, why does it have to be:
- restore_cache:
    keys:
      - v1-dependencies-{{ checksum "package.json" }}
…rather than:
- restore_cache:
  keys:
  - v1-dependencies-{{ checksum "package.json" }}
I feel like the YAML parser used by the Serverless framework is more flexible, e.g.:
- Effect: Allow
  Action: kms:Decrypt
  Resource: "arn:aws:kms:#{AWS::Region}:#{AWS::AccountId}:alias/aws/ssm"
...
api_config_get:
  handler: src/rest/v1/config/index.get
  events:
    - http:
        method: get
        path: api/v1/config
        cors: true
        authorizer: auth0Authorizer
The CircleCI YAML parser will vomit up some really difficult to understand error message into a failed build instance on their site and then I need to get the CircleCI CLI and run circleci config validate to trial-and-error the indentation locally. Ugh.
Regardless, once it works it’s pretty awesome.

Clowning our way towards release management

I duct-taped myself a build-release workflow like so:
workflows:
  version: 2

  cloud-and-firmware:
    jobs:
      - build:
          context: warm-and-fuzzy-particle
      - hold-to-deploy-cloud:
          type: approval
          requires:
            - build
      - cloud-deploy:
          context: warm-and-fuzzy-aws
          requires:
            - hold-to-deploy-cloud
      - hold-to-deploy-firmware:
          type: approval
          requires:
            - build
          filters:
            branches:
              only: master
      - firmware-deploy:
          context: warm-and-fuzzy-particle
          requires:
            - hold-to-deploy-firmware
          filters:
            branches:
              only: master
It works; it’s just a touch awkward since CircleCI still isn’t sure whether their site wants to push you towards their jobs UX (the default) or the workflows UX (what I want) — growing pains I suppose — so it requires some extra navigating from time to time.
And yes, I could probably use tags in git/GitHub for release management instead of the holds - it just hasn’t felt necessary yet.

And yet I am happy

CircleCI surely is not the fastest (…on the free tier…) and there’s further boneheaded stuff (like you can’t edit a secret a.k.a. context, you have to delete it and redefine it) so that, again, compared to Azure Pipelines, it feels a bit clowny, but it gets you through the day. (I didn’t use Azure Pipelines because I wanted to try out an entirely Microsoft-free system, other than obviously TypeScript and VSCode, the two pieces of Microsoft tech one is allowed to use without negative Silicon Valley karma points, it seems.)
And because all the npm lifecycle scripts are consistent and all-encompassing, the actual work specified in the CI definition is basically trivial. Woot!

Managing secrets

I need to keep a bunch of build- and deploy-time secrets (e.g. Android store upload keys). Some of them are short text strings like passwords, others are binary files like p12 keys for the Google Play store. It felt awkward trying to jam those into environment variables (especially the binary files), particularly since I wanted them both in CircleCI and on my local dev machines.
I came across a technique somewhere on the internet to encrypt files in the repo and then dressed it up a bit for my code base:
  • Modify .gitignore to exclude *.decrypted
  • Save secrets in plaintext files with a .decrypted extension (e.g. waf-upload-key.keystore.decrypted)
  • Reference secrets from these files in build automation (c.f. the mobile app post).
  • Create a random password with 1Password
    • Set it in an environment variable for local development (e.g. WAF_GIT_SECRETS_KEY)
    • Create a CircleCI context with that environment variable and assign it on the CircleCI job(s) in question
  • Create encrypt/decrypt lifecycle scripts in packages.json:
"scripts": {
  ...
  "decrypt-secrets": "npm-run-all decrypt-secrets:*",
  "decrypt-secrets:keystore": "cross-var openssl aes-256-cbc -d -out android/app/waf-upload-key.keystore.decrypted -in android/app/waf-upload-key.keystore.encrypted -k $WAF_GIT_SECRETS_KEY",
  "decrypt-secrets:keystore-password": "cross-var openssl aes-256-cbc -d -out android/app/waf-upload-key.password.decrypted -in android/app/waf-upload-key.password.encrypted -k $WAF_GIT_SECRETS_KEY",
  "decrypt-secrets:google-play-service-account": "cross-var openssl aes-256-cbc -d -out android/app/google-play-service-account.p12.decrypted -in android/app/google-play-service-account.p12.encrypted -k $WAF_GIT_SECRETS_KEY",
  "encrypt-secrets": "npm-run-all encrypt-secrets:*",
  "encrypt-secrets:keystore": "cross-var openssl aes-256-cbc -e -in android/app/waf-upload-key.keystore.decrypted -out android/app/waf-upload-key.keystore.encrypted -k $WAF_GIT_SECRETS_KEY",
  "encrypt-secrets:keystore-password": "cross-var openssl aes-256-cbc -e -in android/app/waf-upload-key.password.decrypted -out android/app/waf-upload-key.password.encrypted -k $WAF_GIT_SECRETS_KEY",
  "encrypt-secrets:google-play-service-account": "cross-var openssl aes-256-cbc -e -in android/app/google-play-service-account.p12.decrypted -out android/app/google-play-service-account.p12.encrypted -k $WAF_GIT_SECRETS_KEY",
}
  • Add corresponding lifecycle to top-level package.json:
"scripts": {
  ...
  "decrypt-secrets": "lerna run decrypt-secrets --parallel",
  "encrypt-secrets": "lerna run encrypt-secrets --parallel",
}
  • Add npm run decrypt-secrets step to CircleCI job definition.
  • npm run encrypt-secrets and commit.
  • All done.
For true production code you’re likely better off using something like gpg but this felt close enough. May improve this in the future.

Managing CI containers

I was initially using CircleCI’s built-in containers for my build executors and it worked great. I needed to step up my game, though, in order to work with Flatbuffers (more on why in a future post).
I needed gcc to build the Flatbuffers toolchain and I wanted to keep the built toolchain in the container rather than having to rebuild it constantly.
I started by creating a new repo forked from CircleCI’s dockerfile-wizard repo and went through their wizard steps to get something with Node and Python.
The script-generated container definition compiles Node from scratch which takes sort of forever. That’s not useful. So I ditched everything they’d generated and instead built a really simple Dockerfile from the ground up:
# Use Node LTS for now (be boring)
FROM node:12.14-buster

RUN apt-get update
RUN apt-get install -y apt-utils

#
# C++ toolchain
#

RUN apt-get install -y git make cmake gcc g++

ENV GRUMPYCORP_ROOT /usr/grumpycorp


#
# Flatbuffers
#

ENV FLATBUFFERS_RELEASE v1.11.0

# Clone flatbuffers source
WORKDIR ${GRUMPYCORP_ROOT}
RUN git clone https://github.com/google/flatbuffers.git --branch ${FLATBUFFERS_RELEASE}

# Build flatbuffers tooling
WORKDIR ${GRUMPYCORP_ROOT}/flatbuffers
RUN cmake -G "Unix Makefiles" -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release
RUN make
RUN ./flattests
Eventually I added Python and the AWS CLI so I could stop importing those as CircleCI orbs and set up all my tooling on one place:
#
# Python 3.x
#

RUN apt-get install -y python3-pip python3-dev

RUN \
  cd /usr/local/bin \
  && ln -s /usr/bin/python3 python \
  && pip3 install --upgrade pip


#
# AWS CLI
#

RUN pip3 install awscli
In the end I also added Android tooling (see the complete `Dockerfile in my repo) to streamline all the things.
A trivial CircleCI config builds the image and pushes it to Docker:
version: 2
jobs:
  warm-and-fuzzy-ci:
    machine: true
    environment:
      IMAGE_NAME: warm-and-fuzzy-ci
      IMAGE_TAG: 6
    steps:
      - checkout
      - run: docker login -u $DOCKER_USERNAME -p $DOCKER_PASSWORD
      - run: docker build -t $DOCKER_USERNAME/$IMAGE_NAME:$IMAGE_TAG .
      - run: docker push $DOCKER_USERNAME/$IMAGE_NAME:$IMAGE_TAG
      - store_artifacts:
          path: Dockerfile

workflows:
  version: 2
  dockerfile_wizard:
    jobs:
      - warm-and-fuzzy-ci:
          context: grumpycorp-dockerhub
It’s somewhat beyond me why CircleCI saw it fit to build this convoluted Dockerfile generator wizard thing instead of just giving folks really trivial Dockerfiles to start from.
Gardening note: In theory I could put this into my main WarmAndFuzzy repo as well and only trigger it for a CI-specific branch, I’ve just not invested the time to garden this yet.

Managing build machine performance

Again, I’m on the free tier, so I can’t really complain. That said, I can’t build my projects in parallel in the same job because then I run out of memory. :( This is also why I keep my mobile build separate from my API and frontend build - otherwise it just doesn’t parallelize. If I had (free/cheap) access to larger build machines, it’d be nice to combine those build definitions, but it’s not worth the hassle for the very limited amount of added complexity I have to hang on to.

On staging environments

In an ideal world I’d have a dev/staging environment per branch. I built a setup for a previous project using Terraform that created per-branch environments (and then garbage-collected them nightly by comparing git branches to the list of known environments) but it felt overkill for this solo engineer venture.
For this project, I used the Serverless framework for all my infrastructure needs and it’s a lovely infrastructure-as-code framework even though it’s a bit older (and thus must be uncool).
I’m hosting the infrastructure in AWS because it’s just more mature than Azure when it comes to the latest and greatest stuff like lambdas and static sites (or at least it was when I started WarmAndFuzzy). The one main downside of AWS is that standing up a new environment is slow (certificates, CloudFront (wtf? y u so slow?), …) so the notion of a per-branch environment was just a non-starter.
This at least allows for further lazy choices like not fully scripting the data population of an environment; I just have a backup/restore REST API that I use to repopulate the database on the rare occasion that I have to burn dev or prod to the ground.

End notes


  1. The term lifecycle seems a bit, uh, oversized for build and test scripts but sure. It’s all Lion King up in this here engineering system.
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